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英语翻译的技巧如何正确的进行表达

摘要:英语翻译中文​的表达阶段要注意哪些方面的技巧和方法哪?表达错误,肯定是理解错了,或似懂非懂,但理解正确,却也未必能充分地表达出来。这说明,表达要讲究一定的方法。

英语翻译中文的表达阶段要注意哪些方面的技巧和方法哪?

表达错误,肯定是理解错了,或似懂非懂(这种情况占很大比例)。但理解正确,却也未必能充分地表达出来。这说明,表达要讲究一定的方法。

翻译重视上下文,避免孤立处理词句

初做翻译的人,往往容易看-一个句子译一个句子,遇有生词, 也只是在句子的语境下考虑词义。译到后面,才发现前面的翻译有问题,得重来,浪费了时间,自信心也受到打击。也有人逢山开路,遇水搭桥,筚路蓝缕地翻译下来,结果却前言不搭后语,也浑然不知。正确的方法,应考虑词与词、词与句、句与段、段与段、段与篇章的关系。因此,开译之前,通读全文是最紧要的,往往通读一遍还不够。只有这样,才能从大处着眼,小处着手,前后贯通。在译完之后,还应从词、句、段中跳出来,通读几遍译文。比如,看看选词用字是否有失分寸?词句表达是否合乎习惯?叙事状物是否有违情理?起承转合是否圆通自然?有时,从单个的词或句子看,译文似乎不错,但从整体上看,却显得貌合神离,或“不够味儿”。正所谓“只见树木,不见森林”。因此,在精打细敲之后,进行全盘的加工润色是十分必要的。好比画家作幅巨画,画上几笔,总要抬起头来,或是退后几步,审视整个画面,然后再在什么地方添加几笔。如果一味低头描绘,画中的草木可能惟妙惟肖,但最后的作品很可能并不动人,因为画面缺乏总的氛围。试看下面一个英语片段:

On a cold gray morming of last week I duly turned up at Euston Station, to see off an old friend who was starting for America.

Overmight, we had given him a farewell dinner, in which sadness was well mingled with festivity. Years probably would elapse before his return. Some of us might never see him again. Not ignoring the shadow of the future, we gaily celebrated the past. We were as thankful to have known our guest as we were grieved to lose him ; and both these emotions were made evident. It was a perfect farewell.

And now, here we were, stiff and self-conscious on the platform ;and, framed in the window of the railway-carriage was the face of our friend; but it was like the face of a stranger,一a stranger anxious to lease,an appealing stranger, an awkward stranger,... ( Max eerbohm: Yet Again , Chapter 2 Seeing People Off)

这篇节选的英语曾出现在多年前自学考试的翻译试卷里。表面上看,前两段没有什么理解方面的问题,只是最后一段有点费解,但有过类似的经历,或发挥一想象,也不是不可以对付的。作者曾把它翻译成汉语,并在课堂给学生讲评过,当时暗自得意,将“It was a perfect farewel” 译成“那真是个令人难忘的送别”,而没有将其中的“perfect”照字面译成“完美的”。这次写人书稿,找出了整篇原文,原来是Max Beerbohm 的小说Yet Again里描写“送别”的情景。但待我读完它之前的几个段落,我就怎么也得意不起来了。请看:

Iamnotgoodatit.Todoitwellseemstomeoneofthemost ificult things in the world, and probably seems so to you, too. To see a friend off from Waterloo to Vauxhall were easy enough.  But we are never called on to perform that small feat. It is only when a friend is going on a longish joumey, and will be absent for a longish time, that we tum up at the railway station. The dearer the friend, and the longer the joumey , and the longer the likely absence, the earlier do we turn up, and the more lamentably do we fail. Our failure is in exact ratio to the seriousness of the occasion, and to the aepth of our feeling.

至此,相信读者也在改变看法,而且对原文最后一段的措辞也会更有信心,比如怎样翻译“self-conscious”.

 


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